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Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma – Clinical Diagnosis

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumor that, despite advances in diagnostic procedures and biomolecular research, has a poor prognosis. Symptoms reflect the extent of the disease and include shortness of breath and chest pain. Unexplained pleural effusion and pleural pain in asbestos-exposed patients should raise the suspicion of MPM. Diagnosing MPM requires X-ray and computerized tomography (CT) imaging procedures; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) better determines tumor extension while positron emission tomography (PET) scan provides additional information on metabolic activity, metastases, and response to treatment. Endoscopic biopsy remains the most appropriate procedure for the definitive diagnosis of mesothelioma. Multimodal treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, was associated with better survival for selected patients. Translated clinical research, including new approaches that target immune checkpoints, are opening new avenues that may lead to personalized therapies.

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